I decided to document the process of configuring a Solaris 10 server or workstation over the course of the many times I’ve done it, and this document has become my standard HOWTO for the task. A significant amount of inspiration for this page stemmed from a wonderful guide written by the CTO at Rutgers University, Dr. Charles Hedrick, on setting up Solaris 10 at Rutgers. His guide was one of my starting points for configuring Solaris 10 when I first started collecting Suns and is a very good resource in general. However, this guide diverges from it in detail and preference.
My server setup is a bit different from the one outlined by Dr. Hedrick, and
I chose to start documenting the installation from an earlier stage due to the
fact that I always find myself having to install Solaris myself on secondhand
machines. These notes were taken during the various reinstalls of
which I installed over a private network using another Solaris 10-based install
herring). I’ll start with the Solaris 10 (u9 in this case) DVD
chrysalis having a pair of blank disks.
- Setting up the install server
- Initiating the install
- Switching from serial to SSH
- Using stronger cryptography
- Adding new users
- Configuring some core system services
- Setting up system software
- User PATHs
- User rc dotfiles
Setting up the install server
On the machine that will become the install server, the Solaris Express iso has to be mounted, and the install server must be set up. As a bit of a side note, I’ve heard that JumpStart Enterprise Toolkit (JET) is the preferred way of doing network installations for many serious systems people, but I chose not to use it in this case for simplicity. Anyway,
# lofiadm -a /home/glock/sol-10-u9-ga-sparc-dvd.iso /dev/lofi/1 # mount -F hsfs /dev/lofi/1 /mnt # mkdir -p /export/install
Sun provides a very handy and simple program to set up the install server. It takes a while though, as the contents of the iso have to be copied to disk. Grab a cup of coffee for this one.
# cd /mnt/Solaris_10/Tools # ./setup_install_server /export/install/media Verifying target directory... Calculating the required disk space for the Solaris_10 product Calculating space required for the installation boot image Copying the CD image to disk... Copying Install Boot Image hierarchy... Copying /boot netboot hierarchy... Install Server setup complete
Of course, this install target has to be accessible via NFS, and NFS must be enabled. Also note the Solaris 10-specific svcadm:
# share -o ro,anon=0 /export/install/media # svcadm enable network/nfs/server
Setting up the install client can be trickier because of how the networking may be between your install server and the target client. Both of my machines were on the same subnet, so I did not have to specify much witchcraft.
# cd /export/install/media/Solaris_10/Tools # ./add_install_client -e 0:3:ba:6c:ad:28 -s 192.168.2.91:/export/install/media chrysalis sun4u
In the above case,
0:3:ba:6c:ad:28 is the install target’s (
192.168.2.91 is the install server’s (
herring’s) IP address. Specifying
the IP is important, as I would not rely on the installation being able to
resolve hostnames when it needs to mount the NFS share. The
add_install_client command automatically adds the specified MAC to
/etc/ethers, but it has appeared to be additionally important to add the
client hostname to
/etc/hosts so that the install client can be identified by
the install server.
Initiating the install
On the client machine, access the console via serial, LOM, or keyboard and mouse and get to the OpenBoot prompt. Drop to the ok prompt, cross your fingers, then attempt to boot over the network.
ok> boot net
If the install client won’t boot off the network, first ensure that ipfilter (or whatever firewall you are using on the install server) is not blocking tftpd and NFS. NFS is particularly difficult to pass through a firewall, so I usually toss a rule in to allow all traffic from the install client (both TCP and UDP for NFS) through. Alternatively, you can just svcadm disable network/ipfilter temporarily on the install server; just don’t forget to turn it back on once the installation is complete!
There shouldn’t be anything tricky about the install; I generally opt to use ZFS and mirror two disks for redundancy. I’ve encountered two problems with this that may be worth mentioning.
- I had a problem with disks not appearing in the installer despite being recognized and mountable from a shell opened during the install process. This wound up being because the installer only displays disks with SMI labels as install targets. One of my disks was recycled from another zpool, and as a result it had an EFI label. To rectify this, I had to format -e to get into expert mode, then issue label and choose the SMI label over the EFI.
- For whatever reason, if you want to install with ZFS as your root partition’s
filesystem, you MUST use the text-mode installer. Since
chrysaliswas a net install, this was not an issue; however, if you are installing via keyboard/mouse/monitor, you’ve got to issue boot cdrom - text to force the text mode install (the X installer is still loaded though), or just unplug the mouse and boot cdrom to prevent X from loading at all.
After the system was completely installed, I configured the system to get its IP via DHCP as well, but it appears that the installer does not completely configure the system properly for DHCP. Thus, the first thing I had to do after the installation completed was to
# touch /etc/dhcp.dmfe0 # init 6
The presence of this file will instruct the system to automatically launch
the DHCP client at boot and configure
dmfe0 with it on system boot.
Switching from serial to SSH
I prefer to ditch using the serial console as soon as I can because of how slow it is and vi’s slight incompatibilities with it. The alternative to this serial console at this point is to use SSH, but there are no user accounts on the new system yet. Thus, I have to be able to ssh into the new machine as root. For security reasons, Solaris disables this by default though, so what I do is enable ipfilter to cover for ssh while login-as-root is enabled.
The first step is to establish a very simple ipfilter ruleset while still logged
in through the serial line. Edit
/etc/ipf/ipf.conf and add these rules:
pass out quick from any to any keep state pass in quick proto tcp from 192.168.2.2/32 to any port = 22 keep state keep frags block in quick all
This will block everything incoming except ssh traffic coming from
192.168.2.2, which is the address of my workstation from which I will ssh.
Now enable ipfilter by issuing
# svcadm enable network/ipfilter
and confirm that ipfilter is working correctly by then issuing
# svcs -a | grep ipfilter
Then to allow the root user to log in over SSH, edit
replace the line which reads
and reload this configuration file so that root can SSH in by issuing svcadm refresh ssh.
Now the serial console can be abandoned and the rest of this configuration procedure can be carried out over SSH. Of course, this is optional, and you can often stick to the serial console just as easily if you would like. Anyway, I ssh root@chrysalis from my workstation and I’m back to where I was but with a better terminal.
Using stronger cryptography
A high priority for me is to change the default cryptographic algorithm Solaris
uses. Although this probably does not affect enterprise deployments which use
LDAP or Kerberos, Solaris’s choice to use the standard unix algorithm means all
user passwords (including root!) are strictly limited to only eight characters.
Eight-character passwords are too short for my preference, so I edit
/etc/security/policy.conf and change
|Identifier||Algorithm||Max Pass Length||Compatibility||man page|
|1||BSD MD5||255||BSD, Linux||crypt_bsdmd5(5)|
The man pages for these algorithms are also very informative, and I chose to use Sun’s MD5 implementation simply because man crypt_unix suggests it. After changing this, existing passwords need to be rehashed using the new algorithm. Since only the root account exists right now (this is why I do this before making new user accounts!), this just means issuing
# passwd root
Adding new users
Many first-time Solaris users find it confusing that new user home directories
cannot be made in
/home. This is due to autofs which is enabled by default in
Solaris. The premise is that new home directories can physically be scattered
all over (i.e., in
/export/home, on separate expansion volumes, on other
machines on the network, et cetera) but all be mounted to the unified
Disabling autofs (like in other operating systems) or keeping it enabled (like in Solaris) are both options.
To simply disable autofs, issue
# svcadm disable autofs
/home directory should be released and modifiable. In the case of ZFS
root, it may be a good idea to make
/home its own ZFS dataset for ease of
# rm -r /home # zfs destroy rpool/export/home # zfs create -o mountpoint=/home rpool/home
Of course, ZFS datasets occupy kernel memory and this may not be adviseable on low-memory systems.
If the native autofs setup for Solaris is desired, setting it up is pretty easy.
/etc/auto_master should contain the necessary lines already out of
+auto_master /net -hosts -nosuid,nobrowse /home auto_home -nobrowse
+auto_master defers to NIS maps if one exists; it can be removed if this
server will not be using NIS. The
/home line is the one to keep, as it places the
/home directory under autofs control and defers configuration options to the
/etc/auto_home file. That file is also pretty simple, and needs the following
The first column (a
*) indicates that any directory under
/home directory, when queried, should be mapped under autofs.
The second column (which is blank in this case) would be where the NFS flags
-intr,nosuid,hard) would be, and the third column is the
device to mount. The
& symbol corresponds to the
* in the first line and essentially gets replaced with whatever
* takes. For example, you could more explicitly rewrite
the above line as a bunch of lines, each for an individual user:
glock chrysalis:/export/home/glock frank chrysalis:/export/home/frank mary chrysalis:/export/home/mary
Using the wildcard spares you the hassle of having to edit this file every
time a new user is added; however, this also puts the entire
/home/* under the
control of this server. If you want the ability to mount users whose home
directories are on other devices or machines all into the same
directory, you would (to the best of my knowledge) have to add each user
individually, so at the very least your
auto_home would look like:
glock chrysalis:/export/home/& frank chrysalis:/export/home/& mary chrysalis:/export/home/&
Anyway, configuring autofs and
/etc/auto_home correctly tells the automounter
to NFS mount
/export/home/whoever on the server chrysalis to the local
/home/whoever directory whenever it is accessed.
Once the autofs config files are as they should be, reloading autofs lets
us assign users’ home directories to, say,
/home/glock rather than
# svcadm restart autofs
Although this refresh isn’t strictly necessary, it doesn’t hurt to make sure you haven’t entered any syntax errors by ensuring that autofs will start up correctly.
As a side note, if you are using autofs to mount homes from another Solaris host, don’t forget to share the home directories with this new machine! The way of doing this in ZFS is something like
# zfs set email@example.com/26:@192.168.2.0/24 rpool/export
Or if you want to do it the old-fashioned way, edit
/etc/dfs/dfstab and add a
similar line. For mounting local volumes via autofs though, enabling NFS isn’t
Adding a non-root user
Now to add the first user:
# zfs create rpool/home/glock # useradd -d /home/glock -s /bin/bash -P 'Primary Administrator' glock # passwd glock ... # chown -R glock:other /home/glock
The above procedure can probably be wrapped into a script (a la adduser in Linux) for ease of use.
In recent versions of Solaris 10 (update 8 or 9), I’ve found that the “Primary
Administrator” profile doesn’t always exist. I’m not sure if this is due to a
missing package or what, but adding the profile manually isn’t very hard. First
/etc/security/exec_attr and add this line:
Then add this line to
Primary Administrator:::Can perform all administrative tasks:auths=solaris.*,solaris.grant;help=RtPriAdmin.html
For completeness, install the
RtPriAdmin.html file (I used to link this file
here, but no longer have it) specified in
Then either add users as specified above, or add this profile to existing users
# usermod -P 'Primary Administrator' glock
Now that a non-root user exists, root logins over ssh can be disabled again. In
/etc/ssh/sshd_config, change the
PermitRootLogin parameter back
no and reload the sshd configuration using svcadm refresh
ssh. At this point I logged out and logged back in under my newly created
user account, then did pfexec su - to get back to where I was.
Configuring some core system services
Now that SSH has been locked up again, it’s time to configure a proper ruleset for IPFilter, set up system logging, and get everything up and running.
There are a lot of good guides on general network security and configuring ipfilter, the firewall provided in Solaris 10, so I will not get into the gory details here. However, there are a few important things to note which are unique to Solaris:
- If you didn’t select the “
minimal network daemons” group during installation, a bunch of daemons (notably telnet) will be running by default. To disable most of the unnecessary ones post-install, issue /usr/sbin/netservices limited as root. This will have the same effect as if you chose the minimal network daemons install option.
- To quickly see what is still running, issue netstat -an|grep LISTEN
- Cross-referencing the open ports with
/etc/servicesshould give you a quick idea of what you’ve got running. If there are some mysterious services listening to ports of questionable necessity, you can usually find a more human-readable description of SMF services by issuing svcs -o FMRI,DESC
Knowing this, you can craft a reasonably effective ruleset such as this
# # ipf.conf # # IP Filter rules to be loaded during startup # # See ipf(4) manpage for more information on # IP Filter rules syntax. # General policies pass out quick from any to any keep state block in quick proto tcp with short ### Handle connections over the external interface (bge0) pass in quick on bge0 from chrysalis to any keep state ### Handle SSH coming in from the outside -- only allow connections from Rutgers block in quick on bge0 from any to any port = 22 head 1 pass in quick on bge0 proto tcp from 18.104.22.168/16 to any port = 22 \ keep state group 1 block return-rst in log quick on bge0 proto tcp all group 1 ### Apache2 from outside; let apache do the logging pass in quick on bge0 proto tcp from any to any port = 80 keep state ### Block ICMP except ping block in log quick on bge0 proto icmp from any to any head 2 pass in quick on bge0 proto icmp from any to any icmp-type echo \ keep state group 2 pass in quick on bge0 proto icmp from any to any icmp-type echorep \ keep state group 2 ### Bounce and log any other connection attempts from outside of Rutgers block return-rst in log quick on bge0 proto tcp from !22.214.171.124/16 to chrysalis block return-rst in quick on bge0 proto tcp all block in quick on bge0 all
This ruleset really only acts on the
bge0 interface and leaves traffic on all
others (i.e., internal-facing interfaces and the loopback interface) unfiltered.
The only exception is the second line, which blocks malformed packets on all
interfaces. On the
bge0 interface, this ruleset does these things:
- Allow any connections from the server to itself on the external interface
- Allow SSH connections only from the Rutgers network (
126.96.36.199/24) and drop+log all others
- Allow all httpd traffic (port 80) in
- Allow only ping-related ICMP packets in
- Block everything else, and if the traffic is TCP and isn’t from the Rutgers network (
!188.8.131.52/24), log it
I should also probably mention that, unlike iptables in Linux, ipfilter obeys the last-matching rule instead of the first-matching one UNLESS the “quick” keyword is thrown in there (as I have done above). It would seem to me that using quick-styled rules would make packet filtering more efficient since each packet wouldn’t have to go down the entire stack of rules, but the examples and tutorials I’ve found online seem to be split 50⁄50 in terms of whether to write quick rules or non-quick rules. It must be a matter of personal preference.
Several rules defined for IPFilter are logged, but the log handling has to be
configured properly for this to actually work. The system logging facility’s
configuration needs to be updated accordingly. I edited
added two lines:
auth.info ifdef(`LOGHOST', /var/log/authlog, @loghost) local0.debug ifdef(`LOGHOST', /var/log/ipflog, @loghost)
I should point out that I think there is already an auth.notice line that comes
with Solaris in
/etc/syslog.conf. Either comment out that line or replace it
with the auth line above. This will enable logging of login attempts,
successful or otherwise. The local0 line specifies where ipfilter should drop
its logged output to. Just to make sure that the log files do exist,
# touch /var/log/ipflog && chmod 600 /var/log/ipflog # touch /var/log/authlog && chmod 600 /var/log/authlog
Because the ipfilter and authorization logs can get large and unwieldy, it is also a good idea to let logadm rotate them as necessary. To do this, issue the following two commands:
# logadm -w /var/log/ipflog -C 4 -P 'Fri Jun 19 07:10:00 2009' -a 'kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslog.pid`' # logadm -w /var/log/authlog -C 4 -P 'Fri Jun 19 07:10:00 2009' -a 'kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslog.pid`'
-P ‘Fri Jun 19 07:10:00 2009’ option in these lines is just
a placeholder for the date that the logs were last rotated in and can be any
arbitrary date you want to place, as long as the format is acceptable. The
-C 4 portion specifies that logadm should juggle four files for
each log (e.g.,
authlog.2), and the
-a option indicates that SIGHUP should be sent to logadm’s PID when the
log file is rotated to restart the daemon. Alternatively, you can simply edit
/etc/logadm.conf and add everything after the
-w above, but using the
logadm command offers syntax checking and other safeguards (or so
says the Sun docs).
Now that this is all done, you should be able to
# svcadm refresh system-log
# kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslog.pid`
to reload these configuration changes. I just did init 6 to be safe.
Configuring the NTP client
Synchronizing the clock has a number of advantages, and Rutgers maintains
NTP servers to establish a university-wide time. To sync against the Rutgers
/etc/inet/ntp.conf (or copy one
of the templates in that directory) and add these lines:
server ntp-busch.rutgers.edu version 3 server ntp-lcsr.rutgers.edu version 3 driftfile /var/ntp/ntp.drift
# echo "0.0" > /var/ntp/ntp.drift
to establish the drift file. Alternatively, it is possible to sync against the U.S. ntp.org pool list or NIST’s time servers. Once configured, enable NTP with svcadm enable ntp and, after a few seconds, verify that all is well using ntpq -p.
Setting up the patching system
As of December 2010, I’ve been having trouble using the command-line setup for
sconadm. According to Oracle, the following process should work with a valid,
supported Sun hardware serial number and an Oracle Single Sign-On. Even with my
entitlement to download patches through Oracle Support,
I could not get sconadm to register correctly. Strangely enough, my
old Sun contract number and SunSolve sign-on still work when registering
through the updatemanager Java-based GUI, so I don’t know what’s
supposed to work here.
If you’ve got a valid Sun support contract and a production machine is being
configured here, it’d probably be a good idea to register the system for easy
patching. Although this method may change in the months or years following the
Oracle acquisition, as of August 2010, establishing patch authentication
involves first creating a temporary configuration file (like
and putting the following text in it:
userNamefirstname.lastname@example.org password=somepassword hostName=chrysalis subscriptionKey=ABC123 portalEnabled=false
Of course, you’ve got to already have a valid SunSolve account (email@example.com) and its password (somepassword), and you have to have a Sun support contract number (ABC123). Since this file contains a plaintext password and contract number, the sconadm command requires that it have strict permissions before it’ll accept it. Thus, to register the system for updates, do
# chmod 400 /root/regprof # sconadm register -a -r regprof sconadm is running Authenticating user ... finish registration! # rm /root/regprof
At this point you can issue
# smpatch analyze You have new messages. To retrieve: smpatch messages [-a] 121118-17 SunOS 5.10: Update Connection System Client 1.0.17 125555-07 SunOS 5.10: patch behavior patch 141588-04 SunOS 5.10: ksh,sh,pfksh,rksh,xargs patch 119254-75 SunOS 5.10: Install and Patch Utilities Patch 119788-10 SunOS 5.10: Sun Update Connection Proxy 1.0.9 ...
At some point you should then actually download and apply these patches using smpatch update, but this process can take a very long time and I tend to patch overnight.
Setting up system software
Solaris now comes with a large wealth of software, but it lacks a good compiler out of the box. GCC comes on the DVD now, but I prefer to keep stock GCC off of my system and support only Sun Studio’s compilers. Should I ever come across code that requires GCC to compile correctly (e.g., the wealth of GNU garbage that, despite claiming portability, only compiles nicely on Linux+GCC), I install GCC for Sun Systems.
Anyway, at the time of writing, Oracle Solaris Studio 12.2
was the most recent version of Sun Studio (or Oracle Solaris Studio now), so I
opted to download the package installer version for Solaris SPARC.
Unfortunately it relies on a GUI installer which is a bit silly considering most
servers run headless. It also requires a huge amount of RAM to install since it
/tmp, so I had to specify a few extra parameters during
installation. Provided I downloaded the installer to
# mkdir /root/tmp # bunzip2 SolarisStudio12.2-solaris-sparc-pkg-ML.tar.bz2 # tar -xvf SolarisStudio12.2-solaris-sparc-pkg-ML.tar # cd SolarisStudio12.2-solaris-sparc-pkg-ML # ./SolarisStudio12.2-solaris-sparc-pkg-ML.sh --non-interactive --create-symlinks --tempdir /root/tmp
The –non-interactive flag skips the GUI (and in fact all user input) and just does what it needs to do to install, including adding the optional language packs.
It is worth mentioning that, in the x86 version of Solaris 10 9⁄10 and
Solaris Studio 12.2, I had additional issues where the installer would abort,
saying I needed to install patch 119961-07, but using the included
./install_patches.sh would abort because, as it turns out, I didn’t
SUNWsprot package installed (because it is not included in
the End-User Distribution install). Upon installing SUNWsprot and trying to
then install 119961-07, it gave me another error about not being able to find
the check-install script. A cursory glance made it appear that the
install-patches.sh script included with Solaris Studio 12.2 is
broken; I simply got fed up and installed 119961-07 by hand.
In addition to SUNWsprot being required pre-install (on x86 at least), there are a few important packages that may or may not be necessary to install after the system is up to establish a suitable build environment. These are a few that I’ve found myself needing:
SUNWhea- Headers necessary to compile anything
SUNWtooxin Solaris 9)
SUNWarcxin Solaris 9)
SUNWBtooxin Solaris 9) - Includes the non-GNU version of make
SUNWsproxin Solaris 9) - Otherwise you get errors about
libmakestate.so.1not being found
SUNWlibmr were missing in a Solaris 10 x86 install I did,
which produced compile errors like
"/opt/solstudio12.2/prod/include/CC/Cstd/rw/math.h", line 60: Error: Could not open include file <math.h>.
I’m not sure why I’ve never had that problem in the SPARC installs I’ve done. Also, In my notes I also have SUNWastdev (new to Solaris 10) but I don’t recall why I needed it. Also, installing Sun Studio from a core install requires the SUNWadm* packages.
Solaris has a lot of toolchains included with it due to its long history as a
standards-compliant POSIX and UNIX OS. Because of this, I suspect that it
leaves the task of deciding appropriate PATHs to the user and provides a very
minimal PATH by default. To address this issue and provide users with a more
useful default PATH, I use a file I create called
contains the following:
Then I add the following line to
right above the
export PATH. This gives all Bourne shell users
a pretty useful path as soon as they log in. A description of the various paths
and the toolchains within them can be found via man -s5 filesystem.
User rc dotfiles
Setting up a proper bash login environment is one of the last necessary
steps for me. My
.bashrc looks something like this:
Then, as per the Bash Reference Manual, “typically,
~/.bash_profile contains the line”
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then . ~/.bashrc; fi
And that’s all mine contains.
I use vim as my editor of choice due to its flexibility over the standard
UNIX vi. However, that flexibility really only comes about with a good
file. Mine is pretty basic, but here it is:
syntax on set background=dark set hlsearch set expandtab set ruler set autoindent set backspace=indent,eol,start " Uncomment the following on sufficiently fast systems "let loaded_matchparen = 1 " Uncomment the following to have Vim jump to the last position when " reopening a file if has("autocmd") au BufReadPost * if line("'\"") > 0 && line("'\"") <= line("$") \| exe "normal! g'\"" | endif endif