The information on this page has been compiled based on notes I’ve taken during various (public) vendor presentations and meetings. I am by no means an expert in nonvolatile storage, so if you find any factual errors or information that is out of date, please do contact me and let me know.

NAND-based Flash Storage

NAND-based flash storage encompasses the solid-state storage media found in products ranging from consumer SD cards and cell phones to enterprise-grade NVMe devices.

To make the most of the following notes, it is important to distinguish NAND drives, which are the individual NAND chips purchased by integrators, from flash devices, which contain multiple NAND chips and a NVM controller in a nice package (2.5” drive, PCIe card, etc). There are only a few companies manufacturing NAND chips (e.g., Toshiba, Samsung, and Micron) because doing so requires multi-billion dollar fabs; far more companies buy NAND chips and integrate them into drives (e.g., Kingston and Seagate) that consumers and enterprises purchase.

Hardware Technologies

Commercial NAND flash storage chips come in two flavors:

  • floating gate cells store data on a second floating gate on a transistor. This floating gate is a conductor and is electrically isolated from the transistor using a relatively thick insulator. Floating gate NAND has historically been the technology of choice in planar (2D) NAND devices.

  • charge trap cells also store data on a floating gate on a transistor. Unlike floating gate cells though, this gate is effectively a pure insulator so that electrons that are stuck there stay there forever. Charge trap is the preferred technology for 3D NAND devices.

These NAND cells are programmed (that is, data is saved to them) by sparking the gap between the insulating floating gate and its transistor. This sparking process, called hot carrier injection, causes physical damage to the transistor, and this is why flash storage can be written (“programmed”) a certain number of times (its characteristic endurance, often expressed in units of drive writes per day, or DWPD).

The effects of this damage are different in floating gate and charge trap; because floating gate stores its electrons on a conductive floating gate, any short circuit that forms as a result of damage will cause the entire cell to become useless. Conversely, charge trap cells are unable to fully drain in the presence of a small short circuit and are therefore more durable. However, charge trap cells are more expensive to manufacture than floating gate cells.

Modern 2D NAND relies on roughly 80 electrons trapped on the floating gate to store its data–a 1 or 0 value. Leaky gates can cause data loss over years as these electrons tunnel out of the floating gate.

There are different cells with different bit densities on the market today and in the near future:

  • SLC flash stores 1 bit per cell and has only two electronic levels (1 or 0) that must be measured to read its contents.
  • MLC flash stores 2 bits per cell and has four electronic levels (corresponding 0b00, 0b01,0b10, and 0b11 states) that must be measured to read its contents.
  • TLC flash stores 4 bits per cell and has eight electronic levels (a level for each state between 0b000 and 0b111)
  • QLC flash stores 8 bits per cell and has sixteen electronic levels (a level for each state between 0b0000 and 0b1111)

As more electronic levels are required to store the state of each cell, three general trends dominate:

  1. The read/write performance of the cell goes down because the flash controller has to do a lot more work to ensure that what it is reading or writing is completely correct
  2. The endurance of the cell goes down because the cells have to be crammed closer together to allow sparks of very precise power levels to be used to program all of the different states a cell can take.
  3. The cost per bit goes down because the bit density per cell increases at a rate far in excess of the cost to manufacture more precise cells.

Because data loss in flash is caused by tunneling and tunneling gets easier as NAND cells shrink in dimensions, flash performance and endurance has been getting worse as lithographic processes shrink. The error rates and stability of planar (2D) NAND are scale down so poorly that 2D NAND is simply not economical below 16 nm lithographic processes. However the move to 3D NAND has allowed larger lithographic feature sizes to be used, improving the performance and endurance of 3D NAND relative to state-of-the art planar NAND.

Flash Translation Layer

NAND chips are designed in a way that means data cannot be modified in place; a cell must be erased to a known state before it can be re-written. Furthermore, individual bytes cannot be be written; flash devices must write entire pages of data at once, where a page is typically 16 KiB (as of 1Q2016). To complicate things, erasing data must be done in entire blocks, where a typical block is 512 KiB (in 1Q2016). Thus, to write a page, the flash controller must already know where a fully erased page is, or erase an entire block to create an erased page. If a block must be erased, its valid pages must first moved to other empty pages before the erasure. This logic is implemented in the SSD’s flash translation layer (FTL).

To improve the response time of writes, SSDs will perform background garbage collection to ensure that a reserve of empty pages are always available for incoming writes. Flash garbage collectors have their own I/O stream that operates in parallel with user-generated I/O; as a user writes data to an SSD, those writes are constantly appended to anywhere they will fit. Meanwhile, the garbage collector is constantly looking for erase blocks that have a minimal number of valid pages; when it finds one, it copies those pages to blocks that are already mostly full, then erases the old block. This process of copying valid pages out of the way of a block erasure causes write amplification, since NAND cells are still worn out by this copying, but the copy is occurring without any new user data actually arriving on the device.

It should be obvious that the process of programming NAND is logically complicated. To deal with the logic required to juggle empty pages, partially filled blocks, and garbage collection, modern SSDs contain spare NAND to make the process of finding empty pages easier, and the flash controllers embedded within the SSDs are often multi-core CPUs that contain their own DRAM and, effectively, are a self-contained computer in their own right. Enterprise SSDs may also RAID data across different NAND chips within the drive, and all SSDs encode extensive ECC protection (both on the data at rest, as well as in all of the data paths inside the device) to counteract the effect of leaky gates.

Additional Information

The following resources contain more detail about the topics discussed above:

Storage Class Memory and Phase-change Memory

The following information is derived from public disclosures and public conversations I’ve had with company representatives at Flash Memory Summit 2016. None of this information was shared with me in confidence.

3D XPoint / Intel Optane / Micron QuantX

Intel and Micron have been cagey about their 3D XPoint non-volatile, byte-addressable memory technology. Although there is lots of speculation about the actual materials technology under the hood, it sounds like it is based on a phase-change memory (PCM) technology. It uses chalcogenides but, unlike other “conductive-bridge” or “filamentary” PCM technologies, it uses a bulk switching phenomenon to store its data. In principal, this would increase the endurance of the cells.

It is more energy efficient than DRAM due to its nonvolatility, and Intel has stated that it consumes between 0.3 and 0.5 pJ per bit to move data, which I believe is ~2x less power than standard DRAM. Also unlike DRAM, 3D XPoint is also purported to be truly byte addressable and not require that an entire page of DRAM be powered to read a single byte. However, its latency to the CPU is substantially higher than DRAM, with public numbers for 3D XPoint reflecting about 4 μsec at the hardware level, compared to 0.1 μsec for DRAM.

3D XPoint is manufactured using a 20 nm lithographic process, but because it does not rely on electrons to store state, it can be scaled down beyond the breakdown point of conventional NAND.


Crossbar is a filamentary PCM technology where each cell, built on a 40 nm lithographic process of “CMOS-friendly” (but proprietary) materials, has a 1 or 0 state depending on the presence of a 5 nm metal filament that is grown or destroyed through an α-Si crystal. Its signal-to-noise ratio improves as the lithography is scaled down, unlike NAND, so process shrinks below today’s 40 nm process gives the technology runway.